Xylo-Oligosaccharides Production from Corn Fiber and In-Vitro Evaluation for Prebiotic Effect
Williams, Lakiesha N.
Yadav, Madhav P.
Brooks, John P.
Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) are considered to be prebiotics. Prebiotics are defined as non-digestible food ingredients that benefit the host by stimulating the growth and activity of a limited number of bacteria, such as the Bifidobacterium genus, in the colon. Corn fiber separated from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) could be a valuable feedstock for XOS production. The objective of the first chapter was to determine the efficacy for autohydrolysis to produce XOS using fiber separated from DDGS. Fiber was treated with deionized water in a Parr-reactor, at temperatures ranging from 140 to 220 °C to produce XOS. The maximum total yield of XOS in the solution was 18.6 wt% of the corn fiber at 180 °C. The objective of the second chapter was to evaluate and compare the prebiotic effect of XOS produced by autohydrolysis of DDGS fiber (XOS-D) with other substrates (FOS, commercial XOS (XOS-C), xylose, glucose and inulin) on intestinal bacteria, B. adolescentis, B. breve and Lactobacillus brevis. Bacterial growth on XOS-C was comparable with growth on FOS and inulin. XOS-D promoted bacterial growth more than that of control. Prebiotic potential of XOS produced from corn fiber was confirmed. The objective of third chapter is to determine the yield of XOS from corn fiber separated from ground corn flour (FC) and DDGS (FD) at different autohydrolysis temperatures and hold-times. The conditions for maximum XOS production for FD and FC were 180 °C with 20 min hold-time and 190 °C with 10 min hold-time, respectively. The fourth chapter focuses on production of XOS by enzymatic hydrolysis method for XOS production. Endo-1-4-xylanase enzyme was ineffective for corn fiber as well as corn fiber gum (CFG), despite evaluating a multitude of pretreatment methods and processing conditions. We have proposed use of Multifect Pectinase PE and Multifect Xylanase enzymes, based on work from other researchers. For commercial applications such as food industries, XOS would need to be isolated from liquor. The fifth chapter of this study focuses on literature review of purification methods used in XOS purification.