Molecular and Proteomic Analysis of Components Involved in Abscisic Acid (ABA) Signaling Network
CommitteeWillard, Scott T.
Abscisic acid is an important plant hormone in the responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, which also regulates various growth and developmental processes in plants. Three major components-receptors (PYRs), the PP2C type phosphatases and the SnRK2 subtype kinases form a double negative regulatory system: PYR/PYL/RCARs inhibit the activity of PP2Cs while PP2Cs inhibit that of SnRK2s in ABA signaling pathway. The results of my studies showed that ABA would directly affect the interaction between SnRK2.2 and ABI1 in absence of PYRs. Furthermore, ABA can inhibit the catalytic activity of the SnRK2.2 kinase. These findings indicated that ABA may directly interact with SnRK2.2. Posttranslational modifications play a key role in signal transduction. Phosphorylation is the most important posttranscriptional modification in ABA signal transduction. To dissect new components in ABA signaling network in plants, proteomics studies were carried out in Arabidopsis for identifying ABA- responsive phosphoproteins. Ten phosphoproteins, ATPB, ATPC1, FBA1, CTIMC, GGAT1, GAPC1, GAPC2, GAPA1 and ALDH11A3, were identified by 2-DE proteomic approach and LC-MS/MS analysis. These proteins are likely to be the potential phosphorylated targets of SnRK2s in ABA signaling network. Lysine acetylation (LysAc) also emerges as one of the important posttranslational modifications for protein regulation in plants. Eleven lysine acetylated proteins with altered acetylation in response to ABA were identified in Arabidopsis using proteomic approach. The increased LysAc of Rubisco and the decreased Rubisco activity by ABA treatment indicates the acetylation of Rubisco caused by ABA resulted in the inhibition of Rubisco activity. ABA has also been shown to exist and function in both lower animals and mammalians. The medical application of ABA has become a new area of investigation. To explore the role of protein phosphorylation in ABA-mediated function in mammalians, phosphoproteomic study was conducted in mouse 3T3-L1 cells. Ten phosphoproteins with significant changes in serine/threonine phosphorylation in response to ABA were identified. These results suggest these phosphoproteins are involved in ABA signaling network in mouse cells. The significance of the function of SFRS1, ANXA1 and Galectin-3 on human diseases indicated that ABA could be a potential treatment for some human diseases, such as cancer.