New Methodologies for Optimal Location of Synchronized Measurements and Interoperability Testing for Wide-Area Applications
AdvisorKing, Roger L.
CommitteeMorris, Thomas H.
Younan, Nicolas H.
Venkata, S.S. (Mani)
Large scale outages have occurred worldwide in recent decades with some impacting 15-25% of a nation’s population. The complexity of blackouts has been extensively studied but many questions remain. As there are no perfect solutions to prevent blackouts, usually caused by a complex sequence of cascading events, a number of different measures need to be undertaken to minimize impact of future disturbances. Increase in deployment of phasor measurement units (PMUs) across the grid has given power industry an unprecedented technology to study dynamic behavior of the system in real time. Integration of large scale synchronized measurements with SCADA system requires a careful roadmap and methodology. When properly engineered, tested, and implemented, information extracted from synchrophasor data streams provides realtime observability for transmission system. Synchrophasor data can provide operators with quick insight into precursors of blackout (e.g., angular divergence) which are unavailable in traditional SCADA systems. Current visualization tools and SE functions, supported by SCADA, provide some basic monitoring. Inaccuracies in measurements and system models, absence of redundancy in the measured parameters or breaker statuses in most cases, and lack of synchronization and time resolution in SCADA data result in limited functionality and precision for a typical EMS required in today’s operating environment of tighter margins that require more frequent and more precise data. Addition of synchrophasor data, typically having several orders of magnitude higher temporal resolution, (i.e., 60 to 120 measurements per second as opposed to one measurement every 4 to 8 seconds), can help detect higher speed phenomena and system oscillations. Also, time synchronization to one micro-second allows for accurate comparison of phase angles across the grid and identification of major disturbances and islanding. This dissertation proposes a more comprehensive, holistic set of criteria for optimizing PMU placement with consideration for diverse factors that can influence PMU siting decision-making process and incorporates several practical implementation aspects. An innovative approach to interoperability testing is presented and solutions are offered to address the challenges. The proposed methodology is tested to prove the concept and address real-life implementation challenges, such as interoperability among the PMUs located across a large area.