Refrigerated and Frozen Shelf-Life of Fresh Pork Sausage after the Addition of Antioxidants
Pham-Mondala, Alessandra Julian.
AdvisorSchilling, M. Wes
Silva, Juan L.
Williams, J. Byron
Xiong, Youling L.
Fresh pork sausages were prepared from prerigor meat with synthetic antioxidants and combinations of Rosemary (R: 1500, 2000, 2500 ppm) and Green tea (G: 100, 200, 300 ppm) extracts. Experimental controls contained synthetic antioxidants only. A randomized complete block design with a factorial arrangement involving ten treatment combinations, three frozen storage periods (0.5, 3, 6 mos) and four retail display times (0, 7, 14, 21 d) was utilized. Secondary lipid oxidation products were reduced (P < 0.05) in treatments with higher amounts of R compared with the control across all frozen storage periods. Higher concentrations of both plant extracts led to increased (P < 0.05)CIE a* (redness) andCIE b* (yellowness) and decreased (P < 0.05) CIE L* (lightness) up to 6 mos of storage. Higher concentrations of R enhanced chroma and delayed discoloration throughout 14 d of retail display after 3 and 6 mos of storage. Combinations of R2500+G100 inhibited (P < 0.05) microbial growth compared with the control throughout retail display. Higher levels of R and G showed higher (P < 0.05) concentrations of spice-derived terpenes alpha-pinene, camphene, and isopulegol up to 3 mos of storage. Incorporation of R resulted in lower (P < 0.05) concentrations of lipid or microbial degradation products 2,4-decadienal, 2-butanone, and methanethiol following 3 mos of storage. Higher levels of G showed lower (P < 0.05) concentrations for 3-methyl-1-butanol and methyl isovalerate after 6 mos of storage. Natural plant extract addition led to higher (P < 0.05) consumer acceptability scores and were liked by >80% of the respondents across all frozen storage periods. The control displayed spoilage and detectable rancidity by day 7 following 6 mos of storage. Pork, nutmeg, ginger, and spice complex aromas were higher (P < 0.05) in sausages with increased concentrations of R following 0.5 and 3 mos of storage. Caramelized aroma followed a similar trend for treatments with a higher G content. Ginger, copper-herbal, rancid, off-flavor and off-odor descriptors which were lower (P < 0.05) in sausages containing increased G concentrations. The use of R2500+G300 improved quality over time when the product was stored frozen for 6 mos.